Vitamin C’s concentration in the body is directly related to the protein collagen, which determines the stability of tissues. In vitamin C deficiency, connective tissue dissolves and the body literally breaks apart. Though gross vitamin C deficiency is essentially unknown, chronic dietary vitamin C deficiency is widespread. With insufficient vitamin C (1.) there is a decrease in the stability and elasticity of the blood vessel wall,
Beta-carotene has recently been reported to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease events and angina in the Physician’s Health Study, while vitamin E has been shown to reduce the rate of restenosis after coronary angioplasty, which increases the interest in antioxidants as nutrients in heart disease. Recently the First National Health and Nutrition Survey found that men and women with the highest vitamin C intakes,
Seven hundred and thirty men and women were evaluated by a 7 day dietary record who had no history of cardiovascular disease. In these elderly subjects the mortality from stroke was highest among those with the lowest vitamin C. Those in the highest 3rd of distribution of vitamin C had a relative risk of .5 compared with those with the lowest third after adjustment for age,
In a 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, intervention study involving 96 obese women (BMI: 28 kg/m(2)) between the ages of 18 and 55 years, supplementation with a multivitamin and mineral supplement was found to reduce body weight, body mass index, fat mass, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, increase resting energy expenditure and HDL-cholesterol, and borderline significantly reduce respiratory quotient,
In a cross-sectional study involving 278 long-term users of multiple dietary supplements, 176 users of a multivitamin/mineral supplement, and 602 non-users of supplements, the users of multiple dietary supplements were found to have better biomarkers of health, as compared to subjects in the other 2 groups. At least half of the subjects in the multiple dietary supplements group consumed the following supplements: a multivitamin/mineral,
In this article, the authors review evidence from epidemiological studies, observational studies, one randomized trial and studies investigating the mechanisms through which vitamin D may help to prevent cancer. Studies have found that higher circulating 25(OH)D levels have been associated with lower incidences of various cancers including colon cancer, breast cancer, renal cancer, pancreatic cancer,
Classic vitamin deficiency syndromes, such as scurvy or beriberi, are uncommon in Western cultures. Suboptimal levels of some vitamins may result in chronic diseases. Suboptimal levels of folic acid in conjunction with vitamins B6 and B12 are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, neural tube defects and colon and breast cancer. Low levels of vitamin D may result in bone loss and fractures.
In a nested, case-control study involving 636 women diagnosed with incident breast cancer and 1,272 controls, increased 25(OH) vitamin D(3) serum concentrations were associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer (OR=0.73 for women in the highest tertile). Furthermore, women under 53 years of age at the time of blood sampling were found to have a significant inverse association between vitamin D status and breast cancer,