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Extragastric Manifestations of Helicobacter pylori Infection – Other Helicobacters

Today there is evidence that Helicobacter pylori has a critical role in different extragastric diseases. The discovery of a number of other novel Helicobacter species has stimulated the research in different extragastric diseases, in which an infectious hypothesis is plausible. Enterohepatic Helicobacter species have been hypothesized to play a role in different disorders, including hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones formation and cholangiocellular carcinoma, as well as enteric diseases and inflammatory bowel diseases. Concerning the extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and sideropenic anemia represent, based on the current data, the diseases in which the pathogenic link appears to be strongest. There is also an increasing evidence for a possible association of H. pylori with cardiovascular disease.