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Daily Archives for: May 26th, 2008

Blood samples were analyzed for GSH and GSH redox state in 40 age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) patients (> 60 y), 33 non-ARMD diabetic patients (> 60 years), 27 similarly aged non-ARMD and nondiabetic individuals (> 60 years), and 19 younger individuals (< 60 years) without ARMD or diabetes. Results showed a significantly lower plasma GSH in older individuals (ARMD,

Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in inflammatory demyelination. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family encodes isoenzymes that appear to be critical in protection against oxidative stress. Certain GST loci are polymorphic, demonstrating alleles that are null (GSTM1/GSTT1), encode low activity variants (GSTP1), or are associated with variable inducibility (GSTM3).
 

Nitric oxide (NO) is hypothesized to play a role in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Increased levels of NO metabolites have been found in patients with MS. Peroxynitrite, generated by the reaction of NO with superoxide at sites of inflammation, is a strong oxidant capable of damaging tissues and cells. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is up-regulated in the CNS of animals with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in patients with MS.

Recent studies suggest that NO and its reactive derivative peroxynitrite are implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients dying with MS demonstrate increased astrocytic inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, as well as increased levels of iNOS mRNA. Peroxynitrite is a strong oxidant capable of damaging target tissues, particularly the brain, which is known to be endowed with poor antioxidant buffering capacity.

  • Sechi G; Deledda MG; Bua G; Satta WM; Deiana GA; Pes GM; Rosati G, Reduced intravenous glutathione in the results of early Parkinson’s disease. Prog Neurophyschopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 20(7); 1159-70 1996 Oct.

  • Johannsen P; Velander G; Mai J; Thorling EB; Dupont E, Glutathione peroxidase in early and advanced Parkinson’s disease.

  • Background. Previous studies in patients with a history of Kawasaki disease have focused on vascular endothelial function in coronary arteries, and the endothelial function of systemic arteries is not fully understood. Furthermore the effect of vitamin C on systemic endothelial function after Kawasaki disease has not been elucidated.
     
    Objectives.

    Endothelial dysfunction in the coronary artery contributes to the pathogenesis of variant angina, and endothelial dysfunction in variant angina may be associated with increased oxidant stress in the systemic arteries. We investigated whether endothelial dysfunction exists in the peripheral artery in patients with variant angina, and also examined the effect of vitamin C, an antioxidant,

    Background— Proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor- and oxidative stress induce apoptotic cell death in endothelial cells (ECs). Systemic inflammation and increased oxidative stress in congestive heart failure (CHF) coincide with enhanced EC apoptosis and the development of endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we investigated the effects of antioxidative vitamin C on EC apoptosis in CHF patients.

    Background There is evidence for increased formation of free radicals in patients with hypertension, raising the possibility that NO is inactivated by free radicals, which impairs coronary endothelial function. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the antioxidant vitamin C could improve abnormal endothelial function of coronary arteries in patients with hypertension.
     

    A common feature of cigarette-smoke (CS)-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary emphysema is the activation, aggregation, and adhesion of leukocytes to micro- and macrovascular endothelium. A previous study, using a skinfold chamber model for intravital fluorescence microscopy in awake hamsters, has shown that exposure of hamsters to the smoke generated by one research cigarette elicits the adhesion of fluorescently labeled leukocytes to the endothelium of arterioles and small venules.