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Daily Archives for: October 13th, 2008

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a fuel sensor in the cell and is activated when cellular energy is depleted. Here we report that alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA), a cofactor of mitochondrial enzymes, decreases hypothalamic AMPK activity and causes profound weight loss in rodents by reducing food intake and enhancing energy expenditure. Activation of hypothalamic AMPK reverses the effects of alpha-LA on food intake and energy expenditure.

Background— Vascular inflammation and lipid deposition are prominent features of atherosclerotic lesion formation. We have shown previously that the dithiol compound {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) exerts antiinflammatory effects by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}– and lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial and monocyte activation in vitro and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammatory responses in vivo. Here, we investigated whether LA inhibits atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient (apoE–/–) and apoE/low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient mice,

Accumulation of divalent metal ions (e.g. iron and copper) has been proposed to contribute to heightened oxidative stress evident in aging and neurodegenerative disorders. To understand the extent of iron accumulation and its effect on antioxidant status, we monitored iron content in the cerebral cortex of F344 rats by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and found that the cerebral iron levels in 24–28-month-old rats were increased by 80% (p<0.01) relative to 3-month-old rats.

OBJECTIVE—The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effects of {alpha}-lipoic acid (ALA) on positive sensory symptoms and neuropathic deficits in diabetic patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 181 diabetic patients in Russia and Israel received once-daily oral doses of 600 mg (n = 45) (ALA600),

There is accumulating data demonstrated hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a protective activity of alpha-lipoic acid; a metabolic antioxidant in hypercholesterolemic-induced animals was investigated. Eighteen adult male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit were segregated into three groups labelled as group K, AT and ALA (n=6).

Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as an epidemic in the United States. The major source of vitamin D for both children and adults is from sensible sun exposure. In the absence of sun exposure 1000 IU of cholecalciferol is required daily for both children and adults. Vitamin D deficiency causes poor mineralization of the collagen matrix in young children's bones leading to growth retardation and bone deformities known as rickets.

Vitamin D insufficiency is a term that has been used to describe the finding of biochemical evidence of deficiency, without obvious clinical signs or symptoms, such as rickets or osteomalacia. The condition is most commonly diagnosed by a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D below 40 nmol/L (16 µg/L). This paper reviews North American studies addressing the prevalence of the problem,

The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected and analyzed under the auspices of the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality,

Arsenic exposure is a likely cause of blackfoot disease and a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis. The authors performed a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence on the association between arsenic and cardiovascular outcomes. The search period was January 1966 through April 2005. Thirteen studies conducted in general populations (eight in high-arsenic areas in Taiwan,

There are two functional Omega class glutathione transferase (GST) genes in humans. GSTO1 is polymorphic with several coding region alleles, including an A140D substitution, a potential deletion of E155 and an E208K substitution. GSTO2 is also polymorphic with an N142D substitution in the coding region. We investigated the effect of these variations on the enzyme's thioltransferase,