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Daily Archives for: October 10th, 2012

Lead is a neurotoxicant that accumulates in bone with a half life of 25-30 years. To evaluate the association of lead biomarkers and cognitive function, a cohort of exposed and nonexposed workers who had been previously assessed in 1982 was retested approximately 22 years later. For the current assessment, both blood lead and tibia bone lead levels were determined.

Background: Lead exposure has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in animal and human studies. However, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated. We therefore examined the relationship between lead and multiple biomarkers of CVD.

Methods: Participants were older men from the Normative Aging Study without preexisting coronary heart disease,

Background: The current population of older Americans has accumulated substantial lifetime lead doses, which raises concern about the possibility of adverse cognitive outcomes. We evaluated whether cumulative lead dose from environmental exposures is associated with cognitive function and decline, and whether such effects are persistent, reversible, or progressive.

Methods: We used longitudinal linear modeling to evaluate associations of tibia lead concentration with cognitive function and decline in sociodemographically diverse,

Background: Arsenic in drinking water is associated with kidney cancer. Beginning in 1958, a region of Chile experienced a rapid onset of high arsenic exposure in drinking water, followed by sharp declines when water results plants were installed in 1971.

Methods: For the years 1950–1970, we obtained mortality data from death certificates for an exposed region and an unexposed region in Chile.

Context  High chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water has been related to diabetes development, but the effect of exposure to low to moderate levels of inorganic arsenic on diabetes risk is unknown. In contrast, arsenobetaine, an organic arsenic compound derived from seafood intake, is considered nontoxic.

Objective  To investigate the association of arsenic exposure,

Arsenic is a known carcinogen, and its exposure is associated with cancers in multiple target organs including the prostate. Whether arsenic causes cancer by increased cell proliferation or cell survival is not clear. Additionally, mitochondria have been shown to play important roles in arsenic-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial involvement in arsenic-induced cancer is not clear.

The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35–75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 μg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10–300 μg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar,

Recently, epidemiologic studies of developmental neurotoxicology have been challenged to increase focus on co-exposure to multiple toxicants. Earlier reports, including our own work in Bangladesh, have demonstrated independent associations between neurobehavioral function and exposure to both arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in school-aged children. Our earlier studies, however, were not designed to examine possible interactive effects of exposure to both As and Mn.

Drinking water arsenic exposure has been associated with increased bladder cancer susceptibility. Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a co-carcinogenic effect of arsenic with exposure to DNA damaging agents, such as cigarette smoke. Recent evidence further supports the hypothesis that genetic variation in DNA repair genes can modify the arsenic–cancer relationship, possibly because arsenic impairs DNA repair capacity.