Lead is a neurotoxicant that accumulates in bone with a half life of 25-30 years. To evaluate the association of lead biomarkers and cognitive function, a cohort of exposed and nonexposed workers who had been previously assessed in 1982 was retested approximately 22 years later. For the current assessment, both blood lead and tibia bone lead levels were determined.
Arsenic is a known carcinogen, and its exposure is associated with cancers in multiple target organs including the prostate. Whether arsenic causes cancer by increased cell proliferation or cell survival is not clear. Additionally, mitochondria have been shown to play important roles in arsenic-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial involvement in arsenic-induced cancer is not clear.
The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35–75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 μg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10–300 μg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar,
Recently, epidemiologic studies of developmental neurotoxicology have been challenged to increase focus on co-exposure to multiple toxicants. Earlier reports, including our own work in Bangladesh, have demonstrated independent associations between neurobehavioral function and exposure to both arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in school-aged children. Our earlier studies, however, were not designed to examine possible interactive effects of exposure to both As and Mn.
Drinking water arsenic exposure has been associated with increased bladder cancer susceptibility. Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a co-carcinogenic effect of arsenic with exposure to DNA damaging agents, such as cigarette smoke. Recent evidence further supports the hypothesis that genetic variation in DNA repair genes can modify the arsenic–cancer relationship, possibly because arsenic impairs DNA repair capacity.