Evaluation of Some Biochemical Changes in Diabetic Patients

Objective: Hyperglycemia is considered a primary cause of diabetic vascular complications and is associated with oxidative stress, impaired trace element and lipid metabolism as well as pancreatic enzyme abnormalities. The role of trace elements in some of the metabolic dysfunctions and their contributions in the development of vascular complications is not clear. Therefore, the present study investigates the relationship among diabetes mellitus, trace elements status, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), adva nced oxidation protein products (AOPP), lipid profiles, antioxidant status, nitric oxide and pancreatic amylase activity in the sera of 55 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM; 35 with microvascular complications and 20 without vascular complications), 40 insulindependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM; 25 with microvascular and 15 without microvascular complications), and 20 nondiabetic healthy control subjects. The mean age of the diabetic patients was similar to that of control. The mean duration of the disease was 11.8±6.8 years (3–27 years) in IDDM and 7.1±4.7 years (1–15 years) in NIDDM.
Methods: Plasma Cu, Zn, Mg, Ca, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (i.e. malondialdehyde; MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and amylase activities as well as AOPP were assessed spectrophotometrically whereas AGEs were estimated spectrofluorometrically in two types of diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as control subjects of matched sex and ages.
Results: SOD, CAT and Cp activities were decreased whereas serum a-amylase activity was increased in two types of DM in comparison to the corresponding activities of the control subjects. The plasma levels of MDA, NO and Cu were increased but GSH, Zn, Mg and Ca levels were significantly diminished in diabetic patients as compared to the controls. The averages of total cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDLc) were higher in both types of diabetes mellitus in comparison to the control subjects. The mean value of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLc) was lower in both types of diabetes mellitus. Further, the mean values of AGEs and AOPP were elevated in diabetic patients vs. control. These parameters are significantly higher in NIDDM patients when compared to the IDDM subjects. Slight but not significant differences in these parameters were observed in patients with diabetic complications when compared to that of without diabetic complications.
Conclusion: These findings may explain the role of impaired trace element status, defect of antioxidants and increased of AGE and AOPP in the pathogenesis of pancreas and the vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is increased in both types of DM, but it is more in NIDDM patients than in IDDM subjects. In addition, oxidative stress also plays an important role in the formation of AGEs and AOPP in DM.
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