Lung glutathione and oxidative stress: implications in cigarette smoke-induced airway disease

Glutathione (GSH), a ubiquitous tripeptide thiol, is a vital intra- and extracellular protective antioxidant in the lungs. The rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis is g-glutamylcysteine synthetase (g-GCS). The promoter (58-flanking) region of the human g-GCS heavy and light subunits are regulated by activator protein-1 and antioxidant response elements. Both GSH and g-GCS expression are modulated by oxidants, phenolic antioxidants, and inflammatory and anti-inflammatory agents in lung cells. g-GCS is regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. GSH plays a key role in maintaining oxidant-induced lung epithelial cell function and also in the control of proinflam-matory processes.
Alterations in alveolar and lung GSH metabolism are widely recognized as a central feature of many inflammatory lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Ciga-rette smoking, the major factor in the pathogenesis of COPD, increases GSH in the lung epithelial lining fluid of chronic smokers, whereas in acute smoking, the levels are depleted. These changes in GSH may result from altered gene expression of g-GCS in the lungs. The mechanism of regulation of GSH in the epithelial lining fluid in the lungs of smokers and patients with COPD is not known. Knowledge of the mechanisms of GSH regulation in the lungs could lead to the development of novel therapies based on the pharmacological or genetic manipulation of the production of this important antioxidant in lung inflammation and injury. This review outlines 1) the regulation of cellular GSH levels and g-GCS expression under oxidative stress and 2) the evidence for lung oxidant stress and the potential role of GSH in the pathogenesis of COPD.
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