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Searching for a relationship between manganese and welding and Parkinson’s disease

Research into the causes of Parkinson disease (PD) has accelerated recently with the discovery of novel gene mutations. The majority of PD cases, however, remain idiopathic and in those cases environmental causes should be considered. Several recent reports have focused on welding and manganese toxicity as potential risk factors for parkinsonism and some have even proposed that welding is a risk factor for PD. The controversy has stimulated this review, the primary aim of which is to critically and objectively examine the evidence or lack of evidence for a relationship among welding, manganese, parkinsonism, and PD.