Extragastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection
The role of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in some digestive diseases (gastritis, ulcer, gastric cancer, MALT lymphoma) is well known. It has been suggested relatively recently that infection with HP can be involved in various extra-digestive conditions: respiratory disorders (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchial asthma); vascular disorders (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, primary Raynaud phenomena, primary headache); autoimmune disorders (Sjogren syndrome, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune thyroiditis, Parkinson's disease, idiopathic chronic urticaria, rosacea, alopecia areata); other disorders (iron deficiency anaemia, growth retardations, liver cirrhosis). Case studies, small patient series and non-randomized trials that have shown a beneficial effect of HP eradication in different conditions are not convincing. According to Mastricht III the only conditions where HP eradication is indicated are immune thrombocytopenic purpura and iron deficiency anaemia.