Arsenic affects essential and non-essential amino acids differentially in rice grains: Inadequacy of amino acids in rice based diet
Recent breakthroughs in rice arsenic (As) research demonstrate that As accumulation significantly affects trace nutrients in rice grain. In the present study we analyzed the amino acid (AA) profile of sixteen rice genotypes differing in grain As accumulation, grown at three sites with different soil As concentrations, in ascending order, Chinsurah < Purbosthali < Birnagar. Grain As accumulation negatively correlated with essential amino acids (EAAs) which were more prominent in high As accumulating rice genotypes (HAARGs). Conversely, non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) showed an increase in low As accumulating rice genotypes (LAARGs) but a decrease in HAARGs. EAAs like isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine also decreased in most of the genotypes. NEAAs like glutamic acid, glycine, proline, and histidine showed an increase in all LAARGs. Likewise, sulfur containing AAs (methionine and cysteine) increased in LAARGs but decreased in HAARGs. Among NEAAs in HAARGs, only arginine and serine showed some induction in most of the genotypes. At the highest As site (Birnagar) total EAAs and NEAAs show significant reduction in HAARGs compared to LAARGs. The study concluded that As accumulation in rice grain alters EAAs and NEAAs differentially, and reduction was more pronounced in HAARGs than in LAARGs. Thus, As tainted rice limits required levels of AAs in rice based diets and therefore cannot alone fulfill the recommended daily intake (RDI) of AAs.